by E.W. Bullinger
|PART ONE -
Figures Involving Omission
|PART TWO -
Figures Involving Addition
the sense, by way of
|PART THREE -
Figures Involving Change
Affecting the meaning and usage of words
the order and arrangement of words
the application of words, as to
- AFFECTING WORDS
- El-lips'-is; or, Omission When a gap is
purposely left in a sentence through the omission of some
word or words.
- Absolute Ellipsis. Where the omitted word or words are
to be supplied from the nature of the subject.
- Noun and Pronouns (Genesis 14:19,20. Psalm 21:12).
- Verbs and participles (Genesis 26:7. Psalm 4:2).
- Certain connected words in the same member of a
passage (Genesis 25:32. Matthew 25:9). Called Brachyology.
- A whole clause in a connected passage (Genesis
30:27. 1Timothy 1:3,4).
- Relative Ellipsis.
- Where the omitted word is to be supplied from a
cognate word in the context (Psalm 76:11).
- Where the omitted word is to be supplied from a
related or contrary word (Genesis 33:10. Psalm 7:11).
- Where the omitted word is to be supplied from
analogous or related words (Genesis 50:23. Isaiah
- Where the omitted word is contained in another word,
the one word comprising the two significations
- Ellipsis of Repetition.
- Simple; where the Ellipsis is to be supplied from a
preceding or a succeeding clause (Genesis 1:30.
- Complex; where the two clauses are mutually involved,
and the Ellipsis in the former clause is to be
supplied from the latter; and, at the same time, an
Ellipsis in the latter clause it be supplied from the
former (Hebrews 12:20).
- Zeug'-ma; or, Unequal Yoke When one verb is
yoked on to two subjects, while grammatically a second verb is
- Proto-zeugma, or, Ante-yoke or Fore-yoke (Genesis 4:20.
- Meso-zeugma, or, Middle yoke (Luke 1:64).
- Hypo-zeugma, or End yoke (Acts 4:27,28).
- Syne-zeugmenon, or, Joint yoke (Exodus 20:18).
- A-syn'-de-ton; or, No-Ands (Mark 7:21-23. Luke
14:13). The usual conjunction is omitted, so that the point to
be emphasised may be quickly reached and ended with an
emphatic climax (compare to Polysyndeton, and Luke 14:21).
- Aph-aer'-e-sis; or, Front Cut (Jeremiah
22:24). The cutting off of a letter or syllable from the
beginning of a word.
- APOCOPE: or, End-Cut.
- AFFECTING THE SENSE.
- Ap-o-si-opes'-is; or, Sudden Silence It may be
- Some great promise (Exodus 32:32).
- Anger and threatening (Genesis 3:22).
- Grief and complaint (Genesis 25:22. Psalm 6:3).
- Inquiry and deprecation (John 6:62).
- Mei-o'-sis; or a (Genesis 18:27.
Numbers 13:33). A belittling of one thing to magnify another.
- Ta-pei-no'-sis; or, Demeaning (Genesis 27:44.
Romans 4:19). The lessoning of a thing in order to increase
and intensify that same thing. (Compare Meiosis.)
- Cat-a'-bas-is; or, Gradual Descent
(Philippians 2:6-8). The opposite of Anabasis. Used to emphasize
humiliation, sorrow, etc.
- Syl'-lo-gis'-mus; or, Omission of the Conclusion
(1Samuel 17:4-7). The conclusion, though implied, is
unexpressed, in order to add emphasis to it.
- En'-thy-me-ma; or, Omission of Premiss
(Matthew 27:19). Where the conclusion is stated, and one or
both of the premises are omitted.
- AFFECTING WORDS
- Repetition of Letters and
- Ho-moe-o-pro'-pher-on; or, Alliteration
(Judges 5). The repetition of the same letter or syllable
at commencement of successive words.
- Ho'-moe-o-tel-eu'-ton; or, Like Endings
(Mark 12:30). The repetition of the same letters or
syllables at the end of successive words. Used also of an omission
in the text caused by such-like endings: the
scribe's eye going back to the latter of such similar
words, instead of the former. See Joshua 2:1.
- Ho-moe-o'-pto-ton; or, Like Inflections
(2Timothy 3:2,3). Similar endings arising from the same
inflection of verbs, nouns, etc. . This figure belongs
peculiarly to the original languages.
- Par'-o-moe-o'-sis; or, Like-Sounding
Inflections (Matthew 11:17). The repetition of
inflections similar in sound.
- Ac-ro'-stichion; or, Acrostic (Psalm 119).
Repetition of the same or successive letters at the
beginnings of words or clauses.
- The Repetition of the Same
- Ep'-i-zeux'-is; or, Duplication (Genesis
22:11. Psalm 77:16). The repetition of the same word in
the same sense.
- An-a'-pho-ra; or, Like Sentence Beginnings
(Deuteronomy 28:3-6). The repetition of the same word at
the beginning of successive sentences.
- Ep'-an-a-leps'is; or, Resumption
(1Corinthians 10:29. Philippians 1:24). The repetition of
the same word after a break or parenthesis.
- Po'ly-syn'de-ton; or, Many Ands (Genesis
22:9,11. Joshua 7:24. Luke 14:21). The repetition of the
word "and" at the beginning of successive
clauses, each independent, important, and emphatic, with
no climax at the end (Compare Aysndeton and Luke 14:13).
- Par'-a-di-a'-stol-e; or, Neithers and Nors
(Exodus 20:10. Romans 8:35,38,39). The repetition of the
disjunctives neither and nor, or, either and or.
- Ep-i-stro-phe; or, Like Sentence-Endings
(Genesis 13:6. Psalm 24:10). The repetition of the same
word or words at the end of successive sentences.
- Ep-i'-pho-za; or, Epistrophe in Argument
(2Corinthians 11:22). The repetition of the same word or
words at the end of successive sentences used in argument.
- Ep'-an-a-di-plo'-sis; or, Encircling
(Genesis 9:3. Psalm 27:14). The repetition of the same
word or words at the beginning and end of a sentence.
- Ep-a-dip'-lo-sis; or, Double Encircling
(Psalm 47:6). Repeated Epanadiplosis (see above).
- An'-a-di-plo'-sis; or, Like Sentence Endings
and Beginnings (Genesis 1:1,2. Psalm 121:1,2). The
word or words concluding one sentence are repeated at the
beginning of another.
- Climax; or, Gradation (2Peter 1:5-7).
Anadiplosis repeated in successive sentences (see "Anadiplosis",
- Mes-ar-chi'-a; or, Beginning and Middle
Repetition (Ecclesiastes 1:2). The repetition of the
same word or words at the beginning and middle of
- Mes-o-di-plo'-sis; or, Middle Repetition
(2Corinthians 4:8,9). The repetition of the same word or
words in the middle of successive sentences.
- Mes-o-tel-eu'-ton; or, Middle and End
Repetition (2Kings 19:7). The repetition of the same
word or words in the middle and at the end of successive
- Repetitio; or, Repetition (2Chronicles
20:35-37. John 14:1-4). Repetition of the same word or
words irregularly in the same passage.
- Po-ly-pto'-ton; or, Many Inflections The
repetition of the same part of speech in different
- Verbs (Genesis 50:24. 2Kings 21:13).
- Nouns and pronouns (Genesis 9:25. Romans 11:36).
- Adjectives (2Corinthians 9:8).
- ANTANACLASIS: or, Word-Clashing, and
- Plok'-e; or, Word-Folding (Jeremiah
34:17). The repetition of the same word in a different
sense, implying more than the first use of it.
- Syn'-oe-cei-o'-sis; or, Cohabitation
(Matthew 19:16,17). The repetition of the same word in the
same sentence with an extended meaning.
- Syl-leps'-is(1); or, Combination
(2Chronicles 31:8). The repetition of the sense without
the repetition of the word.
- The Repetition of Different
- In a similar order (but same sense).
- Sym'-plo-ke; or, Interwining
(1Corinthians 15:42-44). The repetition of different
words in successive sentences in the same order and
the same sense.
- In a different order (but same sense).
- Ep-an'-od-os; or, Inversion (Genesis
10:1-31. Isaiah 6:10). The repetition of the same word
or words in an inverse order, the sense being
- Ant-i-me-tab'-o-le; or, Counterchange
(Genesis 4:4,5. Isaiah 5:20). A word or words repeated
in a reveres order, with the object of opposing them to
- Similar in sound, but different in sense.
- Par-eg'-men-on; or, Derivation
(Matthew 16:18). The repetition of words derived from
the same root.
- Par-o-no-ma'-si-a: or, Rhyming Words
(Genesis 18:27). The repetition of words similar in
sound, but not necessarily in sense.
- Par-e-che'-sis; or, Foreign Paronomasia
(Romans 15:4). The repetition of words similar in
sound, but different in language.
- Different in sound, but similar in sense
- Syn-o-ny-mi-a; or, Synonymous Words
(Proverbs 4:14,15). The repetition of words similar in
sense, but different in sound and origin.
- Repeated Negation; or Many Noes (John
10:28). The repetition of divers negatives.
- The Repetition of Sentences
- Cy-clo-id'-es; or, Circular Repetition
(Psalm 80:3,7,19). The repetition of the same phrase at
- Am-oe-bae'-on; or, Refrain (Psalm 136).
The repetition of the same phrase at the end successive
- Coe'-no-tes; or, Combined Repetition
(Psalm 118:8,9). The repetition of two different phrases,
one at the beginning, and the other at the end of
- Ep-i'-bo-le; or, Overlaid Repetition
(Psalm 29:3,4,5,7,8,9). The repetition of the same phrase
at irregular intervals.
- SYNANTESIS: or, Introverted Repetition.
- The Repetition of Subjects
- Parallelism; or Parallel Lines The
repetition of similar, synonymous, or opposite thoughts or
words in parallel or successive lines. Compare to "Correspondence".
- Simple synonymous, or gradational.
When the lines are parallel in thought, and in the use
of synonymous words (Genesis 4:23,24. Psalm 1:1).
- Simple antithetic, or opposite. When
the words are contrasted in the two or more lines,
being opposed in sense the one to the other (Proverbs
- Simple synthetic, or constructive.
When the parallelism consists only in the similar form
of construction (Psalm 19:7-9).
- Complex alternate. When the lines are
placed alternately (Genesis 19:25. Proverbs 24:19,20).
- Complex repeated alternation. The
repetition of two parallel subjects in several lines
- Complex extended alternation.
Alternation extended so as to consist of three or more
lines (Judges 10:17).
- Complex introversion. When the
parallel lines are so placed that the first
corresponds with the last, the second with the last
but one, etc. (Genesis 3:19. 2Chronicles 32:7,8).
- Correspondence. This term is applied to
repetition of a subject or subjects, which reappear in
varying order, thus determining the "Structure"
of any portion of the Sacred Text. This Correspondence is
found in the following forms:-
- Alternate. Where the subjects of the alternate
members correspond with each other, either by way of
similarity or contrast.
- Extended. Where there are two series, but each
consisting of several members (Psalm 72:2-17.
- Repeated. Where there are more than two series
of subjects, either consisting of two members each
(Psalm 26. Psalm 145.), or consisting of more than
two members each (Psalm 24).
- Introverted. Where the first subject of the one
series of members corresponds with the last subject of
the second (Genesis 43:3-5. Leviticus 14:51,52).
- Complex or Combined. Where both Alternation and
Introversion are combined together in various ways
(Exodus 20:8-11. Psalm 105).
- AFFECTING THE SENSE (Figures of
- REPETIO; or, REPETITON (2Chronicles
20:35-37. John 14:1-4). Repetition of the same word or words
irregularly in the same passage.
- Pros-a-po'-do-sis; or, Detailing (John
16:8-11). A return to previous words or subjects for
purposes of definition or explanation.
- EPIDIEGESIS: or, Re-Statement.
- EPEXEGESIS: or, Fuller Explaining.
- Ex-er-gas'-i-a; or Working Out (Zechariah
6:12,13). A repetition so as to work out or illustrate
what has already been said.
- Ep'-i-mo-ne; or, Lingering (John
21:15-17). Repetition in order to dwell upon, for the sake
- Her-men'-ei-a; or, Interpretation (John
7:39). An explanation immediately following a statement to
make it more clear.
- Bat-to-log'-i-a; or, Vain Repetition
(1Kings 18:26). Not used by the Holy Spirit: only by man.
- Ple'-on-asm; or, Redundancy Where what is
said is, immediately after, put in another or opposite way
to make it impossible for the sense to be missed.
The Figure may affect (1) words
(Genesis 16:8); or (2) sentences (Genesis 1:20.
- Per-i'-phras-is; or, Circumlocution
(Genesis 20:16. Judges 5:10). When a description is used
instead of the name.
- Hy-per'-bo-le; or Exaggeration (Genesis
41:47. Deuteronomy 1:28). When more is said than is
- An-ab'-a-sis; or, Gradual Ascent (Psalm
18:37,38). An increase of emphasis or sense in successive
- Cat-a'-bas-is; or, Gradual Descent
(Philippians 2:6-8). The opposite of Anabasis. Used to emphasize
humiliation, sorrow, etc.
- Me-ris'-mos; or, Distribution (Romans
2:6-8). An enumeration of the parts of a whole which has
been just previously mentioned.
- Syn'-ath-roes'-mos; or, Enumeration
(1Timothy 4:1-3). The enumeration of the parts of a whole
which has not been mentioned.
- Ep'-i-troch-as'-mos; or Summarizing (Hebrews 11:32). A running lightly over by way of summary.
- Di-ex'-od-os; or, Expansion (Jude 12,13).
A lengthening out by copious exposition of facts.
- Ep-i'-the-ton; or, Epithet (Genesis 21:16.
Luke 22:41). The naming of a thing by describing it.
- Syn'-the-ton; or, Combination (Genesis
18:27). A placing together of two words by usage.
- HORISMOS: or, Definition.
- Hy'-po-ty-po'-sis; or, Word Picture
(Isaiah 5:26-30). Representation of objects or actions by
- Pros'-o-po-graph'-i-a; or, Description of
Persons (Matthew 3:4). A vivid description of a person
by detailed delineation.
- EFFICTIO: or, Word-Portrait
- CHARACTERISMOS: or, Description of
- Eth'-o-poe'-i-a; or, Description of Manners
(Isaiah 3:16). A description of a person's peculiarities
as to manners, caprices, habits, etc..
- Path'-o-poe'-i-a; or, Pathos (Luke
19:41,42). The expression of feeling or emotion.
- Mi-me-sis; or, Description of Sayings
(Exodus 15:9). Used when the sayings and etc., of another
are described or imitated by way of emphasis.
- Prag'-mato-graph-i-a; or Description of
Actions (Joel 2:1-11).
- Chron'-o-graph'-i-a; or, Description of Time
(John 10:22). The teaching of something important by
mentioning the time of an occurrence.
- Per-i'-stas-is;or, Description of
Circumstances (John 4:6).
- Pro'-ti-me-sis; or, Description of Order
(1Corinthians 15:5-8). The enumeration of things according
to their places of honor or importance.
- Ep'-i-cri'-sis; or, Judgment (John
12:33). A short sentence added at the end by way of an
- Ep-i'-ta-sis; or, Amplification (Exodus
3:19). Where a concluding sentence is added by way of
increasing the emphasis.
- An'-e-sis; or Abating (2Kings 5:1). The
addition of a concluding sentence which diminishes the
effect of what has been said.
- Ep'-i-pho-ne'-ma; or, Exclamation (Psalm
135:21). An exclamation at the conclusion of a sentence.
- Pro-ec'-the-sis; or Justification (Matthew
12:12). A sentence added at the end by way of
- Ep'-i-ther-a-pei'-a; or, Qualification
(Philippians 4:10). A sentence added at the end to heal,
soften, mitigate, or modify what has been before said.
- Exemplum ; or, Example (Luke 17:32).
Concluding a sentence by employing an example.
- Sym'-per-as'-ma; or, Concluding Summary
(Matthew 1:17). When what has been said is briefly summed
- Par-en'-the-sis; or, Parenthesis (2Peter
1:19). Insertion of a word or sentence, parenthetically,
which is necessary to explain the context.
- Ep'i-tre-chon; or, Running Along (Genesis
15:13. John 2:9). A sentence, not complete in itself,
thrown in as an explanatory remark. A form of Parenthesis
- Cat'-a-ploc'-e; or, Sudden Exclamation
(Ezekiel 16:23). This name is given to a parenthesis when
it takes the form of a sudden exclamation.
- Par-em'-bol'-e; or, Insertion (Philippians
3:18,19). Insertion of a sentence between others which is
independent and complete in itself.
- In'-ter-jec'-ti-o; or, Interjection (Psalm
42:2). Parenthetic addition by way of feeling.
- E-jac'-u-la'-ti-o; or, Ejaculation (Hosea
9:14). A parenthesis which consists of a short wish or
- Hy-po-ti-me'-sis; or, Under Estimating
(Romans 3:5). Parenthetic addition by way of apology or
- ANAERESIS: or, Detraction.
- PARADIEGESIS: or, A Bye-Leading.
- SUSTENTATION: or, Suspense.
- Par-a-leips-is; or, a Passing By (Hebrews
11:32). When a wish is expressed to pass by a subject,
which is, notwithstanding, briefly alluded by
- PROLEPSIS: or, Assumption.
- Ap-o'-phas-is; or, Insinuation (Philemon
19.). When, professing to suppress certain matters, the
writer adds the insinuation negatively.
- CATAPHASIS: or, Affirmation.
- ASTEISMOS: or, Politeness.
- AFFECTING THE MEANING OF WORDS
- ENALLAGE: or, Exchange.
- ANTEMEREIA: or, Exchange of Parts of Speech
- Ant'-i-ptos'-is; or, Exchange of Cases (Exodus
19:6, compare to 1Peter 2:9). One Case is put for another
Case, the governing Noun being used as the Adjective instead
of the Noun in regimen.
- Het'-er-o'-sis; or, Exchange of Accidence.
Exchange of one voice, mood, tense, person, number, degree, or
gender for another.
- Of forms and voices (1Peter 2:6).
- Of moods (Genesis 20:7. Exodus 20:8).
- Of tenses (Genesis 23:11. Matthew 3:18).
- Of persons (Genesis 29:27. Daniel 2:36).
- Of adjectives (degree) and adverbs (2Timothy 1:18).
- Of nouns (number), adjectives, and pronouns (Genesis
3:8. Hebrews 7:7).
- Hyp-al'-la-ge; or, Interchange (Genesis 10:9.
1Kings 17:4). A word logically belonging to one connection is
grammatically united with another.
- Met-o'-ny-my; or, Change of Noun When one name
or noun is used instead of another, to which it stands in a
- Of the Cause. When the cause is put for the effect
(Genesis 23:8. Luke 16:29).
- Of the Effect. When the effect is put for the cause
producing it (Genesis 25:23. Acts 1:18).
- Of the Subject. When the subject is put for something
pertaining to it (Genesis 41:13. Deuteronomy 28:5).
- Of the Adjunct. When something pertaining to the subject
is put for the subject itself (Genesis 28:22. Job 32:7).
- Met'-a-lep'-sis; or, Double Metonymy (Genesis
19:8. Ecclesiastes 12:6. Hosea 14:2). Two metonymies, one
contained in the other, but only one expressed.
- Syn-ec'-do-che; or, Transfer The exchange of
one idea for another associated idea.
- Of the Genus. When the genus is put for the species, or
universals for particulars (Genesis 6:12. Matthew 3:5).
- Of the Species. When the species is put for the genus,
or particulars for universals (Genesis 3:19. Matthew
- Of the Whole. When the whole is put for a part (Genesis
- Of the Part. When a part is put for the whole (Genesis
3:19. Matthew 27:4).
- Hen-di'-a-dys; or, Two for One (Genesis 2:9.
Ephesians 6:18). Two words used, but one thing meant.
- Hen-di'-a-tris; or, Three for One (Daniel
3:7). Three words used, but one thing meant.
- Cat'-a-chres-is; or, Incongruity One word used
for another, contrary to the ordinary usage and meaning of it.
- Of two words, where the meanings are remotely akin
- Of two words, where the meanings are different (Exodus
- Of one word, where the Greek receives its real meaning
by permutation from another language (Genesis 1:5. Matthew
- Met-al'-la-ge; or, a Changing Over (Hosea
4:18). A different subject of thought substituted for the
- Ant'-o-no-ma'-si-a or, Name Change (Genesis
31:21). The putting of a proper name for a Appellative or
common Noun, or the reverse.
- Eu'-phem-is'-mos; or, Euphemy (Genesis 15:15).
Where a pleasing expression is used for one that is
- APLIATIO: or, Adjournment
- Ant-i'-phras-is; or, Permutation (Genesis
3:22). The use of a word or phrase in a sense opposite to its
- AFFECTING THE ARRANGEMENT AND
ORDER OF WORDS
- SEPARATE WORDS
- Hyp-er'bat-on; or, Transposition (Romans
5:8). The placing of a word out of its usual order in a
- An-a'-stro-phe; or, Arraignment (Acts
7:48). The position of one word changed, so as to be out
of its proper or usual place in a sentence.
- Syl-leps'-is(2); or, Change in Concord
(John 21:12). A change in the grammatical concord in favor
of a logical concord.
- Tme'-sis; or, Mid-Cut (Ephesians 6:8). A
change by which one word is cut in two, and another word
put in between.
- SENTENCES AND PHRASES
- HYSTERON-PROTERON: or, The Last, First.
- Hys'-ter-o-log'-ia; or, The First Last
(Genesis 10 and 11. 2Samuel 24). A prior mention of a
- Hys'-ter-e-sis; or, Subsequent Narration
(Genesis 31:7, 8. Psalm 105:8). When later record gives
supplemental or new particulars, not inserted in the
- Sim'-ul-ta'-ne-um; or Insertion
(Revelation 16:13-16). A kind of historical parenthesis,
an event being put out of its historical place between two
others which are simultaneous.
- Ant-i'-thes-is; or, Contrast (Proverbs
15:17). A setting of one phrase in contrast with another.
- E-nan-ti-o'-sis; or, Contraries (Luke
7:44-46). Affirmatation or negation by contraries.
- An'-a-co-lu'-thon; or, Non-Sequence
(Genesis 35:3. Mark 11:32). A breaking off the sequence of
- AFFECTING THE APPLICATION OF WORDS
- AS TO SENSE
- Sim'-i-le; or, Resemblance
(Genesis 25:25. Matthew 7:24-27). A declaration
that one thing resembles another. (Compare Metaphor,
- Syn'-cri-sis; or, Repeated Simile (Isaiah
32:2). Repetition of a number of resemblances.
- Met'-a-phor' or, Representation (Matthew
26:26). A declaration that one thing is (or represents)
another: while Simile resembles it, and Hypo catastasis
- Hy'-po-cat-as'-ta-sis; or, Implication
(Matthew 15:13; 16:6). An implied resemblance or
- Al'-le-go-ry; or, Continued Comparison by
(Metaphor) (Genesis 49:9.
Galatians 4:22,24), and Implication (Hypo catastasis)
(Matthew 7:3-5). Teaching a truth about one thing by
substituting another for it which is unlike it.
- Par-a-bol-a; or, Parable i.e., Continued
Simile (Luke 14:16-24). Comparison by continued
- APOLOGUE: or, Fable
- Par-oe'-mi-a; or Proverb (Genesis 10:9.
1Samuel 10:12). A wayside-saying in common use.
- Type (Romans 5:14). A figure or ensample of
something future, and more or less prophetic, called the
- Symbol (Isaiah 22:22). A material object
substituted for a moral, or spiritual truth.
- Æ-nig'-ma; or, Dark Saying (Genesis
49:10. Judges 14:14). A truth expressed in obscure
- Po-ly-o-ny'-mi-a; or, Many Names (Genesis
26:34,35. 2Kings 23:13). Persons or places mentioned under
- Gno'-me; or, Quotation The citation of a
well-known saying without quoting the author's name.
- Where the sense originally intended is preserved,
though the words may vary (Matthew 26:31).
- Where the original sense is modified in the
quotation or reference (Matthew 12:40).
- Where the sense is quite different from that which
was first intended (Matthew 2:15).
- Where the words are from the Hebrew or from the
Septuagint (Luke 4:18).
- Where the words are varied by omission, addition, or
transposition (1Corinthians 2:9).
- Where the words are changed by a reading, or an
inference, or in number, person, mood, or tense.
- Where two or more citations are amalgamated (Matthew
- Where Quotations are from books other than the Bible
- AMPHIBOLOGIES: or, Double Meaning.
- Ei'-ron-ei-a; or, Irony. The expression of
thought in a form that naturally conveys its opposite.
- Divine Irony. Where the speaker is Divine (Genesis
3:22. Judges 10:14).
- Human Irony. Where the speaker is a human being (
- Peirastic Irony. By way of trying or testing
- Simulated Irony. Where the words are used by man in
dissimulation (Genesis 37:19. Matthew 27:40).
- Deceptive Irony. Where words are clearly false as
well as hypocritical (Genesis 3:4,5. Matthew 2:8).
- Ant-i'-phras-is; or, Permutation
(Genesis 3:22). The use of a word or phrase in a sense
opposite to its original signification.
- Ox'-y-mor-on; or Wise-Folly (1Timothy
5:6). A wise saying that seems foolish.
- Id-i-o'-ma; or, Idiom The peculiar usage
of words and phrases, as illustrated in the language
peculiar to one nation or tribe, as opposed to other
languages or dialects.
- Idiomatic usage of verbs (Genesis 42:38. 1John
- Special idiomatic usages of nouns and verbs (Genesis
33:11. Jeremiah 15:16).
- Idiomatic degrees of comparison (Luke 22:15).
- Idiomatic use of prepositions (Luke 22:49).
- Idiomatic use of numerals (Psalm 103:2).
- Idsiomatic forms of quotations (Psalm 109:5).
- Idiomatic forms of question (Luke 22:49).
- Idiomatic phrases (Genesis 6:2, 4. Matthew 11:25).
- Idioms arising from other figures of speech (see
notes in margin).
- Changes of usage of words in the Greek language
(Genesis 43:18. Matthew 5:25).
- Changes of usage of words in the English language
(Genesis 24:21. 2Kings 3:9).
- AS TO PERSONS
- Pros'-o-po-poe'-i-a; or, Personification
Things represented as persons.
- The members of the human body (Genesis 48:14. Psalm
- Animals (Genesis 9:5. Job 12:7).
- The products of the earth (Nahum 1:4).
- Inanimate things (Genesis 4:10).
- Kingdoms, countries, and states (Psalm 45:12).
- Human actions, etc., attributed to things, etc.
(Genesis 18:20. Psalm 85:10).
- Ant'-i-pros-o'-po-poe-i-a; or Anti-Personification
(2Samuel 16:9). Persons represented as inanimate things.
- An-throp'-o-path-ei'-a; or, Condescension
(Genesis 1:2; 8:21. Psalm 74:11. Jeremiah 2:13. Hosea
11:10). Ascribing to God what belongs to human and
rational beings, irrational creatures, or inanimate
- Ant-i-met-a-the'-sis; or, Dialogue
(1Corinthians 7:16). A transference of speakers; as when
the reader is addressed as if actually present.
- Association; or, Inclusion (Acts 17:27).
When the speaker associates himself with those whom he
addresses, or of whom he speaks.
- Ap-o'-stro-phe; or, Apostrophe When the
speaker turns away from the real auditory whom he is
addressing to speak to another, who may be-
- God (Nehemiah 6:9).
- Men (2Samuel 1:24,25).
- Animals (Joel 2:22).
- Inanimate things (Jeremiah 47:6).
- Par-ec'-bas-is; or, Digression (Genesis
2:8-15). A temporary turning aside from one subject to
- AS TO SUBJECT-MATTER
- Met-a'-bas-is; or, Transition
(1Corinthians 12:31). A passing from one subject to
- Ep'-an-or-tho-sis; or, Correction (John
16:32). A recalling of what has been said in order to
substitute something stronger in its place.
- Am'-phi-di-or-tho'-sis; or, Double Correction
(1Corinthians 11:22). A correction setting right both
hearer and speaker.
- ATACHORESIS: or, Regression.
- AS TO TIME
- Pro-lep's-is, (Ampliatio); or, Anticipation
(Hebrews 2:8). Anticipating what is going to be, and
speaking of future things as present.
- AS TO FEELING
- Path'-o-poe'-i-a; or, Pathos (Luke
19:41,42). The expression of feeling or emotion.
- ATEISMOS: or, Urbanity.
- An'-a-mne'-sis; or, Recalling (Romans
9:3). An expression of feeling by way of recalling to
- Ben'-e-dic'-ti-o; or, Blessing (Genesis
1:22,28. Matthew 5:3-11). An expression of feeling by way
of benediction or blessing.
- Eu'-che; or, Prayer (Isaih 64:1,2). An
expression of feeling by way of prayer, curse, or
- Par'-ae-net'-ic-on; or, Exhortation
(1Timothy 2). An expression of feeling by way of
- Oe'-on-is'-mos; or, Wishing (Psalm 55:6).
An expression of feeling by way of wishing or hoping for a
- Thau-mas'-mos; or, Wondering (Romans
11:33). An expression of feeling by way of wonder.
- Pae-sn'-si'-mos; or, Exultation (Zephaniah
3:14). Calling on others to rejioce over something.
- As'-ter-is'-mos; or, Indicating (Psalm
133:1). Employing some word which directs special
attention to some particular point or subject.
- Ec'-pho-ne'-sis; or, Exclamation (Romans
7:24). An outburst of words, prompted by emotion.
- A-po'-ria; or, Doubt (Luke 16:3). An
expression of feeling by way of doubt.
- Ep'-i-ti-me'-sis; or, Reprimand (Luke
24:25). An expression of feeling by way of censure,
reproof, or reproach.
- El-eu'-ther-i'-a; or, Candor (Luke
13:32). The speaker, without intending offence, speaks
with perfect freedom and boldness.
- Ag'-an-ac-te'-sis; or Indignation (Genesis
3:13. Acts 13:10). An expression of feeling by way of
- APOSIOXIS: or, Detestation.
- Dep-re-ca'-ti-o; or, Deprecation (Exodus
32:32). An expression of feeling by the way of
- Di'-a-syrm-os; or, Raillery (Matthew
26:50). Tearing away disguise, and showing up a matter as
it really is.
- CATAPLEXIS: or, Menace.
- Ex'-ou-then-is'-mos; or, Contempt (2Samuel
6:20). An expression of feeling by way of contempt.
- Mal'-e-dic'-ti-o; or, Imprecation (Isaiah
3:11). Expression of feeling by way of malediction and
- De'-i-sis; or, Adjuration (Deuteronomy
4:26). An expression of feeling by oath or asseveration.
- Chleu-as'-mos; or, Mocking (Psalm 2:4). An
expression of feeling by mocking and jeering.
- AS TO ARGUMENTATION
- Er'-o-te-sis; or, Interrogating (Genesis
13:9. Psalm 35:10). The asking of questions, not for
information, or for an answer. Such questions may be asked
(1) in positive affirmation, (2) in negative affirmation,
(3) in affirmative negation, (4) in demonstration, (5) in
wonder and admiration, (6) in rapture, (7) in wishes, (8)
in refusals and denials, (9) in doubts, (10) in
admonition, (11), in expostulation, (12) in prohibition or
dissuasion, (13) in pity and commiseration, (14) in
disparagement, (15) in reproaches, (16) in lamentation,
(17) in indignation, (18) in absurdities and
impossibilities, (19) double questions.
- Di'-a-log-is-mos; or, Dialogue (Isaiah
63:1-6). When one or more persons are represented as
speaking about a thing, instead of saying it oneself.
- DIANOEA: or, an Animated Dialogue.
- Affirmation; or, Affirmation (Philippians
1:18). Emphasizing words to affirm what no one has
- Neg-a'-ti-o; or, Negation (Galatians
2:5). A denial of that which has not been affirmed.
- Ac-cis'-mus ; or, Apparent Refusal
(Matthew 15:22-26). So named because it is an apparent or
- Æ'-ti-o-log'-ia; or Cause Shown (Romans
1:16). Rendering a reason for what is said or done.
- Ant-eis'-a-go-ge; or, Counter Question
(Matthew 21:23-25). The answering of one question by asking
- ANISTROPHE: or Retort.
- Ant-i-cat'-e-gor'-ia; or, Tu Quoque
(Ezekiel 18:25). Retorting upon another the very
insinuation or accusation he has made against us.
- Met-a-sta-sis; or, Counter-Blame (1Kings
18:17,18). A transferring of the blame from one's self to
- An'-a-coe-no-sis; or, Common Cause
(1Corithians 4:21). An appeal to others as having
interests in common.
- Syn'-cho-re'-sis; or, Concession (Habakkuk
1:13). Making a concession of one point in order to gain
- Ep-i'-trop-e; or, Admission (Ecclesiastes
11:9). Admission of wrong, in order to gain what is right.
- PAROMOLOGIA: or, Confession.
- Pro'-ther-a-pei'-a; or, Conciliation
(Matthew 19:16). Conciliating others, by way of
precaution, because of something we are about to say.
- PRODIORTHOSIS: or, Warning.
- Pal'-in-od'-i-a; or, Retracting
(Revelation 2:6). Approval of one thing after reproving
for another thing.
- Pro-lep's-is, (Occupation); or, Anticipation.
Answering an argument by anticipating it before it is
- Open. When the anticipated objection is both
answered and stated (Matthew 3:9).
- Closed. When the anticipated objection is either not
plainly stated or not answered (Romans 10:18).